Economía del comportamiento, entienda a fondo y gaste menos

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Cuando sales de casa decidida a comprar algo, ¿siempre regresas con lo que habías elegido inicialmente? Según los pensadores de la Economía del comportamiento, la respuesta a esta pregunta es: no siempre. Y tal vez estés de acuerdo con ellos. Pero, ¿cómo sería posible? Muy simple: los estudios del comportamiento del consumidor han encontrado una manera muy efectiva de influir en la decisión de compra. Son los llamados nudges, estrategias diseñadas para dirigir un comportamiento dirigido al interés de quienes toman la decisión. En otras palabras, haz que actúes de acuerdo a la voluntad de alguien más.

A diferencia de la economía tradicional, apoyada en el concepto de «homo economicus», que se describe como un tomador de decisiones centrado en el interés personal y en la capacidad ilimitada de procesar información, la Economía del Comportamiento emerge para mostrar que la realidad es muy diferente, con decisiones tomadas en hábitos, experiencias personales y reglas prácticas simplificadas. «Sólo aceptan soluciones satisfactorias, buscan rapidez en la toma de decisiones, tienen dificultades para equilibrar intereses a corto y largo plazo y están fuertemente influenciados por factores emocionales y el comportamiento de los demás», describen las investigadoras Flávia Ávila y Ana María Bianchi, en un artículo publicado en el portal Behavioral Economics.

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Economía del comportamiento (Foto: Pixabay)
Economía del comportamiento (Foto: Pixabay)

Para comprender más fácilmente lo que son los codazos, podemos citar ejemplos de la vida cotidiana: ¿se ha dado cuenta de que los artículos más caros del supermercado están siempre delante de los demás, normalmente a la altura de los ojos y al principio de los pasillos? Porque sabemos que todo el almacenamiento de los productos en la estantería no fue al azar, sino que pensó en inducir a comprar los artículos de mayor interés de los empresarios y comerciantes.

Pero al contrario de lo que te puedas imaginar, los nudges también tienen un buen lado, y cuando se usan bien, pueden llevar a las personas a tener mejores y más saludables hábitos. No es de extrañar que formen parte de las políticas gubernamentales de países como Estados Unidos, Inglaterra e incluso Brasil.

En 2015, la Ley 13.183 instituyó la adhesión automática a la Fundación de Previsión Complementaria del Servicio Público Federal (Funpresp). La fundación, que desde 2013 funciona de forma opcional para los empleados que ganan por encima del límite máximo del INSS, es decir, que era necesario que el empleado expresara su intención de adherirse al régimen, lo incluye ahora de forma automática. Así, el funcionario sólo se manifiesta si quiere dejar de participar. El resultado de esta política fue una mayor adhesión al régimen.

Pedro Nery es economista y consultor legislativo en el Senado Federal. Explica que, como el propio término sugiere en la traducción literal, el empujón es un «pequeño empujón» que ocurre en alguien para que algo suceda como se esperaba.

«Son pequeños toques que recibimos para tomar una decisión, pero sin cambiar la estructura de incentivos que ya tenemos», explica Nery, quien cita, como ejemplo, un empujón ampliamente utilizado en nuestra vida cotidiana para estimular el consumo:

«Cuando estoy comprando una entrada para el cine y el asistente me pregunta si no quiero tomar palomitas de maíz también. Esto es un empujón, me animan a tomar una decisión sin cambiar mi objetivo inicial», explica. «Las palomitas de maíz no se han vuelto más baratas, pero hay un recordatorio para que yo también le preste atención.

Para Nery, es muy importante que el consumidor esté atento a su objetivo inicial y que siempre tome decisiones racionales. Recuerda que estamos sujetos a las influencias de nuestras emociones, por lo que vale la pena analizar con más frialdad para no actuar por impulso, para cuidar la Economía del comportamiento.

«La literatura científica está bien consolidada al señalar que, cuando estamos comprando algo, en realidad estamos tomando una decisión emocional, estando influenciados por las emociones. Lo importante es estar seguros de la decisión tomada para evitar deudas y arrepentimientos innecesarios», concluye el economista, estos son ejemplos de Economía del comportamiento.

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